Magnetic particle testingor MPT is a nondestructive testing method for locating surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. It depends for its operation on the fact that when the material or part under test is magnetized, discontinuities that lie in a cause leakage field to the direction of the magnetic field will cause a leakage field to be formed at and above the surface of the part. The presence of this leakage field, and therefore the presence of the discontinuity, is detected by the use of finely divided ferromagnetic particle applied over the surface, some of the particle being gathered and held by the leakage field. This magnetically held collection of particle forms an outline of the discontinuity and generally indicates its location, size, shape and extent. Magnetic particles are applied over a surface as dry particles, or as wet particle in a liquid.
Ferromagnetic materials include most of the iron, nickel and cobalt alloys. These materials lose their ferromagnetic properties above a characteristic temperature called the Curie point which is approximately 760O C for most of the ferromagnetic material.
The principal industrial uses of magnetic article testing are final inspection, receiving inspection, in process inspection and quality control, maintenance and overhaul in the transportation industries, plant and machinery maintenance and inspection of large components.
Thin coatings of paint and other non-magnetic coverings, such as plating; adversely affect sensitivity of magnetic particle inspection.